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Running For More…

The personal blog and website of Kristen Cincotta

#NHBPM Post 3: Stomach Cancer Awareness Month!

November 7th, 2012 by kscincotta

Note: This post is a part of WeGo Health‘s National Health Blog Post Month: 30 posts in 30 days challenge. The prompt for Day 3 that I’m responding to is “I don’t know about this, but I’d like to…”. To see the rest of my #NHBPM posts, please click on the image at the bottom of this post.

So, as noted in my #NHBPM header introduction, the prompt for “Day 3” was “I don’t know about this, but I’d like too… ” which seems like the perfect time to write another post in my Cancer Awareness Months series. As I’ve written before, while I choose to focus my efforts primarily on breast cancer awareness and advocacy, I feel that it is important for all cancer advocates to have some familiarity with each of the major cancer subtypes. So using the “Awareness Months” as my guide, I’ve been researching and writing brief synopses on different subtypes of cancer, which can all be found filed under the blog category “Cancer Awareness Months”. The month of November serves triple duty as Lung Cancer Awareness Month, Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month, and Stomach Cancer Awareness Month, which is what I’m going to be writing about today.

Stomach Cancer Awareness Month was started in 2010 by the group No Stomach for Cancer. They chose November because it is “a month known for the pleasure of eating”. With so many of us thinking about our bellies this month, this is the perfect month to shine a spotlight on this widely overlooked type of cancer. In fact, while mortality has been declining over recent decades (especially here in the United States), stomach cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death word wide.

About Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer, which is also commonly referred to as gastric cancer, is any cancer that forms in the tissues lining the stomach. The stomach itself is actually made up of five distinct tissue layers:

  1. Inner layer/lining (or mucosa): the site of digestive enzyme production and the most common origination site for stomach cancers.
  2. Submucosa: the supportive tissue layer for the inner layer of the stomach.
  3. Muscle layer: the location of the muscles responsible for digestive contractions that keep food moving through the GI tract.
  4. Subserosa: the supportive tissue layer for the outer layer of the stomach.
  5. Outer layer (or serosa): the tissue that covers the exterior of the stomach and holds it in place within the abdomen.
Per the NCI page on stomach cancer, this type of cancer usually begins in the cells of the inner layer of the stomach and can, over time, grow and invade the deeper tissues of the stomach wall. This type of stomach cancer is called adenocarcinoma and accounts for 90-95% of all malignant stomach tumors. The other three less common types of cancer found in the stomach are:
  1. Lymphoma, which is a cancer of the immune system that is sometimes found in the wall of the stomach. Lymphomas (which I wrote about in more detail here) account for ~4% of all stomach cancers.
  2. Carcinoid tumors, which start in the hormone -making cells of the stomach. These tumors account for ~3% of all stomach cancers.
  3. GI stromal tumors (or GIST), which originate in a specific type of cell in the stomach wall known as the interstitial cells of Cajal. These types of tumors can be found anywhere along the GI tract, although they are most commonly found in the stomach. Even so, GI stromal tumors are very rare among stomach cancers.
Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer
While we don’t know the direct cause (or more likely, causes) of stomach cancer, a number of risk factors have been identified, the management of which has led to the aforementioned decline in stomach cancer mortality here in the United States. I’m going to go through a number of these risk factors in more depth, but in general, factors that contribute to gastric inflammation and poor nutrition (which itself contributes to gastric inflammation) can have a large impact on a person’s risk for developing stomach cancer. As a result, stomach cancer is much more prominent in less developed countries (and in the less well off segments of developed countries as well) where healthy food, clean water, and proper refrigeration are not widely available.
Some of the recognized risk factors for stomach cancer include:
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria. H pylori is a very common infection of the inner lining of the stomach. It is estimated that up to two-thirds of the world’s population is harboring H pylori at any given time, the majority of whom will suffer no ill consequences of this infection. In order to survive within the acidic environment of the stomach, these bacteria actively convert nitrites/nitrates from our food into ammonia, which can irritate the stomach lining resulting in peptic ulcers, among other complications. When left untreated over the long term, this irritation to the stomach walls can leave those tissues at a greater risk for developing cancer. H pylori is spread from person to person via contaminated food and water or through mouth to mouth contact. While H pylori is still very common around the world, the increasingly widespread use of antibiotics to treat other infections in developed countries has had the incidental effect of reducing H pylori infection rates in those countries. You can read more about the connections between H pylori and cancer here.
  • Eating a poor diet consisting of high amounts of smoked/pickled/salted foods and low amounts of fresh fruit and vegetables. This type of diet is thought to increase risk for stomach cancer due to the high amounts of nitrites/nitrates in foods that have been preserved using these methods, which again can contribute to lower stomach acidity and long term inflammation of the stomach tissues. Fruits and vegetables, with their plethora of good for you vitamins and minerals are thought to counteract some of these ill effects and are generally easier on the stomach. The advent of refrigeration has led to a significant decrease in preservation via smoking/pickling/salting and, when coupled with the increased ability to keep fresh fruits and vegetables on hand year round, has led to a significant reduction in stomach cancer around the world, and especially here in the United States and in Europe.
  • Pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia that is caused by a deficiency in vitamin B12.
  • Previous stomach surgeries or illnesses. Because these operations or conditions can alter the enzymatic balance within the stomach and leave the tissues irritated, having a history of GI surgeries or distress is associated with a higher risk for developing stomach cancer. This includes having a personal history of other forms of stomach cancer, including lymphoma and GIST.
  • Smoking. Smokers have twice the risk of developing stomach cancer as non-smokers, likely to due increased irritation of the stomach tissues.
  • The usual suspects. As with most other forms of cancer, age, obesity, lack of physical activity, and a family history of stomach cancer are also considered risk factors for stomach cancer.

To learn more about the risk factors associated with stomach cancer, I highly recommend the American Cancer Society’s webpage on the topic, here.

The Statistics

It is estimated that 21,320 people will be diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2012, with the majority of those diagnoses (13,020) occurring in men. 10,540 people will die of stomach cancer in that same time period. 26.9% of all people diagnosed with stomach cancer live at least five years following initial diagnosis. One in 116 people will be diagnosed with stomach cancer at some point in their lifetimes, with diagnoses in men being more common. Thankfully, for reasons discussed in the previous section, the incidence rate has been steadily dropping since the 1930s when stomach cancer was the leading cause of cancer death here in the United States. However, due to lack of refrigeration, unhealthy diets, and contaminated water, stomach cancer is still very common in other parts of the world where it remains the second leading cause of cancer death. It is estimated that the United States spends ~ $1.6 billion annually on treating stomach cancer.

The NCI allocated $14.5 million (or 0.29%) of their budget for stomach cancer research in 2010, the most recent year for which those statistics were available.

Recommended Resources

If you would like to learn more about stomach cancer, I highly recommend reading through the NCI’s web pages dedicated to stomach cancer, which can be found here. Their “What You Need To Know” section is particularly informative, as is the “snapshot” report on stomach cancer, especially the section discussing recent research investments and findings. I also found the American Cancer Society’s Learn About Cancer: Stomach Cancer section to be very useful. All of the statistics cited in the post were from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) fact sheet on thyroid cancer, which can be found here. These webpages were my primary sources of information for this blog post.

The American Association for Cancer Research does not have any specific recommendations for organizations dedicated to stomach cancer research, stomach cancer advocacy, or patient support for those diagnosed with stomach cancer. However, the following organizations are (to the best of my knowledge) considered to be leaders in the field and may be worth consulting:

No Stomach for Cancer, the founders of Stomach Cancer Awareness Month

Can’t Stomach Cancer

The Gastric Cancer Foundation

The Life Raft Group, an organization that focuses on GI stromal tumors.

As with all of these cancer awareness posts, I hope that everyone reading this found it helpful and informative. I know I learned a lot researching it and will be a more effective cancer advocate for it!

Note: While I am a biomedical scientist, I am not considered an expert (medical or otherwise) on stomach cancer. This post, as with all of my “awareness month” posts, is not meant to be an in depth review of stomach cancer. Rather, I only wanted to provide a brief overview of stomach cancer in order to help further the larger cancer community’s awareness of this common cancer. Moreover, while I provided links to a number of stomach cancer organizations at the end of this post, I have not researched these organizations to the extent that I do for my “Spotlight On” series of posts. Until I can research them further, I am not explicitly advocating financial donations to these organizations (although I certainly won’t advise you against it either should you find them worthy!). Instead, I am recommending them here because each organization is a well respected leader in these specific areas and is considered a reputable source for further information on stomach cancer.

 

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2 Responses to “#NHBPM Post 3: Stomach Cancer Awareness Month!”

  1. Elided says:

    Howdy! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d fieurgd I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My site goes over a lot of the same subjects as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you might be interested feel free to send me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Fantastic blog by the way!

  2. Good post. I am going through many of these issues as well..

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